The closest living relatives of the clade are the cycads , : Fossil plants with leaves that have more than four veins per segment have customarily been assigned to the taxon Ginkgo , while the taxon Baiera is used to classify those with fewer than four veins per segment. Sphenobaiera has been used for plants with a broadly wedge-shaped leaf that lacks a distinct leaf stem.
Fossils attributable to the genus Ginkgo first appeared in the Early Jurassic. One of the earliest fossils ascribed to the Ginkgophyta is Trichopitys , distinguished by having multiple-forked leaves with cylindrical not flattened , thread-like ultimate divisions.
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The Ginkgophyta declined in diversity as the Cretaceous progressed, and by the Paleocene , Ginkgo adiantoides was the only Ginkgo species left in the Northern Hemisphere , while a markedly different and poorly documented form persisted in the Southern Hemisphere. Along with that of ferns, cycads, and cycadeoids, the species diversity in the genus Ginkgo drops through the Cretaceous, at the same time the flowering plants were on the rise; this supports the hypothesis that, over time, flowering plants with better adaptations to disturbance displaced Ginkgo and its associates.
At the end of the Pliocene , Ginkgo fossils disappeared from the fossil record everywhere except in a small area of central China , where the modern species survived. It is doubtful whether the Northern Hemisphere fossil species of Ginkgo can be reliably distinguished. Given the slow pace of evolution and morphological similarity between members of the genus, there may have been only one or two species existing in the Northern Hemisphere through the entirety of the Cenozoic: At least morphologically, G.
The remainder may have been ecotypes or subspecies. The implications would be that G. While it may seem improbable that a single species may exist as a contiguous entity for many millions of years, many of the ginkgo's life-history parameters fit: Extreme longevity; slow reproduction rate; in Cenozoic and later times a wide, apparently contiguous, but steadily contracting distribution; and as far as can be demonstrated from the fossil record extreme ecological conservatism restriction to disturbed streamside environments.
Given the slow rate of evolution of the genus, ginkgo possibly represents a pre- angiosperm strategy for survival in disturbed streamside environments.
Ginkgo evolved in an era before flowering plants, when ferns , cycads , and cycadeoids dominated disturbed streamside environments, forming low, open, shrubby canopies. The sediment record at the majority of fossil ginkgo localities indicates it grew primarily in disturbed environments , along streams and levees. The species was initially described by Carl Linnaeus in , the specific epithet biloba derived from the Latin bis , "two" and loba , "lobed", referring to the shape of the leaves.
The epithet of the latter may have been intended to denote a characteristic resembling Adiantum , the genus of maidenhair ferns. The scientific name Ginkgo is the result of a spelling error that occurred three centuries ago. Engelbert Kaempfer , the first Westerner to investigate the species in , wrote down this pronunciation in the notes that he later used for the Amoenitates Exoticae with the "awkward" spelling "ginkgo".
Ginkgos are popular subjects for growing as penjing and bonsai ;  they can be kept artificially small and tended over centuries.
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Furthermore, the trees are easy to propagate from seed. The nut-like gametophytes inside the seeds are particularly esteemed in Asia, and are a traditional Chinese food. Ginkgo nuts are used in congee , and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight.
In Chinese culture, they are believed to have health benefits; some also consider them to have aphrodisiac qualities. Japanese cooks add ginkgo seeds called ginnan to dishes such as chawanmushi , and cooked seeds are often eaten along with other dishes. When eaten in large quantities or over a long period, the gametophyte meat of the seed can cause poisoning by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine MPN.
MPN is heat-stable and not destroyed by cooking. Some people are sensitive to the chemicals in the sarcotesta , the outer fleshy coating. These people should handle the seeds with care when preparing the seeds for consumption, wearing disposable gloves. The symptoms are allergic contact dermatitis   or blisters similar to that caused by contact with poison ivy. However, seeds with the fleshy coating removed are mostly [ clarification needed ] [ quantify ] safe to handle.
The first use as a medicine is recorded in the late 15th century in China; among western countries, its first registered medicinal use was in Germany in Despite use, controlled studies do not support the extract's efficacy for most of the indicated conditions. Although extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaf sold as dietary supplements are sometimes marketed as being beneficial for cognitive function ,  there is no scientific evidence for effects on memory or attention in healthy people. Systematic reviews of clinical trial results have shown there is no scientific evidence for effectiveness of ginkgo in treating high blood pressure ,  menopause -related cognitive decline,  tinnitus ,  post- stroke recovery,  peripheral arterial disease ,  macular degeneration ,  or altitude sickness.
The use of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts may have undesirable effects, especially for individuals with blood circulation disorders and those taking anticoagulants such as aspirin or warfarin , although studies have found ginkgo has little or no effect on the anticoagulant properties or pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects.
Additional side effects include increased risk of bleeding, gastrointestinal discomfort , nausea , vomiting , diarrhea , headaches, dizziness, heart palpitations , and restlessness.
ykytequcyvah.gq According to a systemic review , the effects of ginkgo on pregnant women may include increased bleeding time , and it should be avoided during lactation because of inadequate safety evidence. Ginkgo biloba leaves and sarcotesta also contain ginkgolic acids ,  which are highly allergenic , long-chain alkylphenols such as bilobol or adipostatin A  bilobol is a substance related to anacardic acid from cashew nut shells and urushiols present in poison ivy and other Toxicodendron spp.
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The level of these allergens in standardized pharmaceutical preparations from Ginkgo biloba was restricted to 5 ppm by the Commission E of the former Federal German Health Authority. The first record of Europeans encountering it is in in Japanese temple gardens , where the tree was seen by the German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer. Because of its status in Buddhism and Confucianism , the ginkgo is also widely planted in Korea and parts of Japan; in both areas, some naturalization has occurred, with ginkgos seeding into natural forests.
In some areas, most intentionally planted ginkgos are male cultivars grafted onto plants propagated from seed, because the male trees will not produce the malodorous seeds. The disadvantage of male Ginkgo biloba trees is that they are highly allergenic. Ginkgos adapt well to the urban environment, tolerating pollution and confined soil spaces. The ginkgo leaf is the symbol of the Urasenke school of Japanese tea ceremony. The tree is the official tree of the Japanese capital of Tokyo , and the symbol of Tokyo is a ginkgo leaf.
Extreme examples of the ginkgo's tenacity may be seen in Hiroshima , Japan, where six trees growing between 1—2 kilometres 0.
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Although almost all other plants and animals in the area were killed, the ginkgos, though charred, survived and were soon healthy again, among other hibakujumoku trees that survived the blast. Other editions.
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